Leche de burra en casos de alergia a la leche de vaca en humanos. Un desafío para Argentina

  • Luis Losinno Laboratorio de Producción Equina, Facultad de Agronomía y Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Argentina.
  • Ana Flores Bragulat Laboratorio de Producción Equina, Facultad de Agronomía y Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Argentina.

Resumen

En humanos, las alergias alimentarias (AA), han sido calificadas como un problema emergente de salud pública en los países desarrollados. La alergia a las proteínas de la leche de vaca (APLV) es una respuesta inmune a determinadas proteínas presentes en la leche bovina que ocurre después de la ingestión de la misma y es una de las alergias de mayor prevalencia (0,5-4%) en niños de hasta un año de edad. Los principales alérgenos de la leche de vaca están distribuidos entre las fracciones del suero (20%) y de la caseína (80%).
El tratamiento para APLV consiste en eliminar los productos lácteos de la dieta a fin de evitar la exposición a los alérgenos implicados. Debería proponerse a estos pacientes el sustituto menos alergénico. La fórmula extensamente hidrolizada de leche bovina contiene algunos epítopes que pueden ser reconocidos por el sistema inmune y causar reacciones alérgicas. En general, hay un 25–80% de niños con APLV que desarrollan una reacción cruzada con la fórmula que contiene soja, o leche hidrolizada de otras especies de rumiantes. La leche de burra es considerada una alternativa válida para los niños con APLV debido a su composición semejante a la leche humana, su probada tolerabilidad, palatabilidad, y su adecuada concentración de nutrientes como también la gran cantidad de compuestos bioactivos. Considerando la alta tasa de tolerabilidad encontrada en diversos estudios utilizando leche de burra, se ha propuesto que sea considerada como una formula hipoalergénica natural para el tratamiento de alergias a las proteínas de origen bovino. La producción de leche de burra en Sudamérica está en desarrollo y debería ser objeto de estudio en centros hospitalarios locales para que los niños afectados con APLV puedan acceder a productos de calidad y de mercado nacional para su consumo. Argentina cuenta con las posibilidades agroecológicas para la producción de leche de burra en particular en áreas áridas o semiáridas y bajo el formato de pequeñas producciones. Se podría contribuir al desarrollo socioeconómico de áreas marginales y a generar un producto natural de origen rural que podría ser una alternativa para los niños con APLV.


 


Donkey milk in cow milk allergy in humans. A challenge to Argentina


Abstract. In humans, food allergies (FA) have been classified as a public health problem in developed countries. Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) is an immune response to the proteins present in cow’s milk that occurs after ingestion. It is one of the most prevalent allergies (0.5-4%) in children up to one year of age. The main allergens in cow’s milk are distributed between the fractions of whey proteins (20%) and casein (80%). The treatment for CMPA consists of eliminating dairy products from the diet in order to avoid exposure to the allergens involved. A hypoallergenic substitute should be proposed to these patients. The extensively hydrolysed formula of bovine milk contains some epitopes that can be recognized by the immune system and cause allergic reactions. In general, there is a 25-80% of children with CMPA who develop a cross reaction with the formula containing soy, or hydrolysed proteins of other ruminant species. Donkey milk is considered a valid alternative for children with CMPA due to its composition similar to human milk, its proven tolerability, palatability, and its adequate concentration of nutrients as well as the large number of bioactive compounds. Considering the high percentage of tolerability found in various studies in donkey milk, it has been proposed that it be considered as a natural hypoallergenic formula for the treatment of allergies to cow’s milk proteins. The production of donkey milk in South America is beginning to develop successfully; donkey milk should be studied in local hospitals so that all children affected with CMPA can access quality products from the national market for consumption. Our country has the agro ecological possibilities for the production of donkey milk, particularly in arid or semi-arid areas and in the format of small productions. It could contribute to the socioeconomic development of marginal areas and generate a natural product of rural origin that could be an alternative for children with CMPA.


 

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2019-07-29
##submission.howToCite##
LOSINNO, Luis; FLORES BRAGULAT, Ana. Leche de burra en casos de alergia a la leche de vaca en humanos. Un desafío para Argentina. Ab Intus, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 3, p. 81-99, july 2019. ISSN 2618-2734. Disponible en: <http://www.ayv.unrc.edu.ar/ojs/index.php/Ab_Intus/article/view/91>. Fecha de acceso: 18 oct. 2019
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